How it Ended

On Thursday, May 3rd GENERAL REICHELT, Chief of Staff to GENERAL BLASKOWITZ, informed GENERAL FOULKS, commanding the 1st Canadian Corps, that the German troops would surrender at once if they received as assurance that they would not be sent to Russia as prisoners of war. GENERAL FOULKS referred this to the 21st Army Group, but before an answer to this question arrived, GENERAL MONTGOMERY received and signed the official capitulation of all German forces in Northern Europe, excluding Norway but including Holland.

Limited Task of Resistance

One of the conditions imposed was that the German forces should be concentrated in certain areas designated by GENERAL FOULKS, but they would be allowed to retain their arms until this movement had taken place. This immediately ruled out the possibility of the Germans surrendering to the Netherlands Forces of the Interior, whose task now became even more limited.

Shots at Brigadier

On May 7th BRIGADIER GENERAL SPALDING of the 1st Canadian Corps drove through Amsterdam under German safe custody with one German car in front and one behind, and was fired upon. Several people in his car were wounded and the bullets found were from British Sten guns.

Armed Civilians to be Shot at Sight

informed PRINCE BERNHARD of this and said that he did not wish to loss the life of a single Canadian soldier, and if resistance forces were undisciplined he would have to proclaim martial law. In the meantime he would issue an order to shoot at sight any civilian carrying arms.

Arm-bands for Partisans

Accordingly, instructions were issued forthwith that no resistance troops should carry arms. At the same time, GENERAL FOULKS said that in order to ensure that members of the resistance forces would be able to carry arms again as soon as possible, he would provide uniform arm-bands from Army sources.


No personnel were infiltrated nor were ant stores delivered during this final period.




CUBBING                                                                                                           (Contact with DRIEHOEK)

“Laughing Germans”

(Cieremans) asked London (1) to congratulate and thank Field-Marshal Montgomery and all Allies in the name of the Dutch people on the German unconditional surrender. On May 5th CUBBING cabled (2): “Flags and joy for freedom. Laughing well-armed Germans; hiding resistance”. That was the present situation and nobody understood it. A message had been received from the Commandant of the Netherlands Forces of the Interior ordering all resistance groups to stay in hiding until further notice. That afternoon the Germans were pasting up bills about the armistice. Would London please send instructions?

Bitter fighting in Utrecht

He later reported (
3) that bitter fighting was going on in many parts of his region. The Germans were refusing to surrender and paid no attention to BBC and Radio Orange messages. He was advised (4) that he should conform to instructions received from the Commandant of the NBS, providing he was satisfied that these were authentic.

(1) 4 from Cubbing of 04.05.45
(2) 6 from Cubbing of 05.05.45
(3) 7 from Cubbing of 05.05.45
(4) 149 to Cubbing of 05.05.45


Canadian Shot by Civilians

London cabled to the Commandant (
5) with regard to an unfortunate incident in Amsterdam in which the car of a Canadian Brigadier was shot at by armed civilians - possibly Germans - and a staff officer was seriously wounded.

Resistance to Leave Arms at Home

In order to prevent such incidents in the future being attributed to resistance forces, the following warning was issued:- “resistance forces would on no account parades the streets with arms, but should leave them at home. This was only normal as German troops were being disarmed as Allied troops took over. Civilians seen on the streets with weapons would be shot. Would the Commandant issue appropriate warning immediately.

5) 106 to DC of 8.5.1945

HOOT                                                                                                       (Liaison with Rotterdam KP)

NBS Agreement with Germans
HOOT (Weve) reported (8) that the Germans were still aggressive. But the next day he cabled (7) that the Netherlands Forces of the Interior had made the following agreement with the Germans:

a) Total armistice
b) No executions
c) Prisoners to be released
d) Mutual contact in order to prevent clashes and difficulties.

London advised
HOOT (8) that all agents should remain where they were until HQ could make contact with them. HOOT and his loyal colleagues were congratulated on their good work.




Traitors on the run
London advised the Commandant of The Hague via
DRAUGHTS-2 (van Paaschen) (9) that after the capitulation all cars used by resistance must have papers with authorization and stamp from higher commanders. This step was necessary because “undesirable elements” planned to leave for Germany in cars
with resistance and Allied markings. As and when various W/T operators were overrun by passing Allied troops, they should ask to be put in touch with the SF Detachment representative from whom they would receive instructions (

Call for discipline

It was essential
(11) that the resistance forces and the population should avoid provoking the enemy. It was probable that incidents would be caused by fanatical enemy elements. The resistance forces should set an example to the population by not allowing themselves to be provoked. Everyone should observe the utmost discipline during the Allied advance.

Situation confused

In reply (
12) DRAUGHTS-2 advised London that all open resistance operations had been forbidden until further order by the Commandant of the NBS. The situation was extremely confused because the Germans had apparently not yet received official instructions to surrender. He later reported (13) the surrender of the German forces in Leiden and Gouda.

SD delay surrender

In Delft the Germans had not surrendered (
14). The Dutch flags were flying. The resistance forces were not in action. In The Hague the situation was similar. The SD apparently did not want to surrender.

Arrival of the Allies

On May 7th
DRAUGHTS-2 reported that the advance Allied patrols had reached The Hague, Leiden, Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The population was enthusiastic and their behaviour was calm and worthy. MUSSERT was held by resistance forces (15).

Traitors arrested

On May 8th he reported (
16) the arrest of further Dutch traitors including MUSSERT’s adjutant, the Procureur General, The Director General of the Netherlands People’s Sevices, The President of the Court of Justice, seven members of MUSSERT’s bodyguard and the SD agents POSTMA and HAAKMAN who had betrayed hundreds of illegal workers. In addition they had arrested many other National Socialist collaborators, and (Dutch) girl friends of Germans had been close-cropped and “signed with a swastika”.

Orderly mobilization

All these people were in The Hague prison. Later in the same day he reported (
17) that the mobilization of the resistance forces had been executed in good order. They were guarding important buildings in co-operation with the police. This had made a good impression on the population.

(9)    155 to Draughts 2 of 05.05.45
To Draughts via Spean.
To Commandant The Hague stop After capitulation all cars used by BS must have papers with authorization and stamp from higher commanders stop Reason is that bad elements plan to leave in cars marked with BS an Allied markings into Germany stop

(10)  156 to Draughts 2 of 05.05.45
To Draughts 2 via night Spean.
As and when the various W/T operators are overrun by advancing Allied troops they must ask to be put in touch with the SF detachment representative stop They will receive instructions from him stop

(11)  157 to Draughts 2 of 06.05.45
To Draughts 2 via night Spean.
Essential that BS and population avoid provocation of enemy stop Probable that incidents have been or will caused by fanatical enemy elements stop BS must set example to population and not be provoked by enemy stop Allied advance is necessarily gradual and all should observe utmost discipline during this period stop

(12)  335 from Draughts 2 of 05.05.45
From Draughts 2 via Spean.
Three three five of five twelve hours stop All operations of BS in open forbidden until further order by commander BS stop Situation extremely confused because Germans here apparently have not yet received official instruction to surrender stop

(13)  336 from Draughts 2 of 05.05.45
From Draughts 2 via Spean.
My three three six stop In Leiden Germans surrendered Feldgendarmie guards keep order stop Ortskommandant in Gouda surrendered Nazi burgomaster and police authorities captured stop In Alphen and ERYN and Bodegraven situation confused people plunder German stores in Bodegraven five shot by SS stop

(14)  337 from Draughts 2 of 05.05.45
From Draughts 2 via Spean.
My three three seven of thirteen hours stop In Delft Germans do not surrender Dutch flags are allowed BS not in action stop In The Hague same situation as Delft SD wishes not to surrender stop Bye

(15)  340 from Draughts 2 of 07.05.45
From Draughts 2 via Spean.
Three four zero stop Advanced patrols The Hague Leiden  Amsterdam and Rotterdam stop Population enthousiast stop General impression population calm and worthy stop NBS active stop Mussert guarded in Vesting Clingendaal but not yet arrested stop

(16)  342 from Draughts 2 of 08.05.45
From Draughts 2 via Spean.
Further arrested KUYGEN secretaris General NSB ENKLAAR Adjudant of Mussert VAN VLOTEN Procureur Generaal van Gerechtshof earlier Directeur Generaal Ned Volksdienst CARP President Vredesgerechtshof WESTRA Burgomaster The Hague SD agent POSTMA Comm. HAAKMAN one of the most cunning SD agents who betrayed hundreds of illegal workers PROF. VAN GENECHTEN and seven men of lijfwacht Mussert stop Further many NSB-ers collaborateurs and girlfriends of Germans who are close cropped and signed with Swastika stop All are in Huis van Bewaking The Hague stop

(17)  343 from Draughts 2 of 06.05.45