Copy for SOE.
MULHOLLAND, Leonard George.
Born: 20-09-1920 Soerabaja, Dutch East Indies.
Occupation: 3rd Mate.
Politics: Member of Ned. Unie.
Languages: Dutch, English, German, Swedish, Malayan.
Father: George Max, aged 48, engineer, Dutch by birth, last heard of in Batavia, Dutch East Indies.
Mother: Constanza Eleanore, nee BEEM, aged 45, Dutch by birth, director of Children's Home, last heard of Kramat 11,
Batavia. (Separated from husband).
Sister: Else Constance, aged 20, last heard of with mother.
Last permanent address: c/o Mrs. Wilhelmina SISSINGH, Jan van Ghesttellaan 16, Rotterdam.
1. Dutch Passport No. A31415 issued 05-11-1943 by Dutch Consul General, Stockholm and contained British Visa
No. 12087 issued 04-02-1944 by British Passport Control Office, Stockholm. "Travelling to Glamorganshire".
2. Third Mate's Diploma issued 18-10-1943 by the examination board for Nautical Students, The Hague.
3. Certificate stating that MULHOLLAND has passed B.S. exams issued 18-07-1941 by Amsterdam Nautical School.
4. Anstallungsbevis No. 1193 issued 29-12-1943 at Stockholm.
5. Vaxlingskort V2/623197 for period commencing September 1943.
6. Inkopskort Y No. 444873 for period commencing June 1943.
7. Vaxlingskort V2/506483 for period commencing March 1943.
8. Inkopskort D4 Grup C-E No. G/485269 issued at Stockholm.
9. Labour Exchange card Year 1943, Group No. 601 No. 3194 issued 16-11-1943 at Stockholm.
Date & Port of embarkation: 10-02-1944, Gothenburg.
Date & Port of arrival: 11-02-1944 Leuchars ex aircraft G-?GFO.
Date of arrival at RVPS: 12-02-1944.
1. MULHOLLAND attended elementary and HBS schools in the Dutch East Indies leaving in 1939. In August 1939 he travelled to Holland where he became a student at the Amsterdam Nautical School. he remained there until July 1941.
2. He than spent two months holiday, after which he attended the wireless Telegraphy School Steenhouwer at Rotterdam. STEENHOUWER himself is a Jew and the school was later taken over by his son-in-law who is an Aryan.
3. MULHOLLAND was unable to receive money from the Dutch east Indies where his parents are still living and was therefore financed by a close friend of the family, A. KORTEWEG, Dutch of 15 Place Oort, Hillegensberg. KORTEWEG is a retired Dutch east Indies official.
4. In October 1941 MULHOLLAND left the wireless school and went to sea in order to carry out the practical part of his course, which was nine months sailing.
5. He signed on with the "METEOOR", owners BALK of Delfzijl. he served on this ship until te end of December 1941. On this ship he sailed to Bremen where they loaded Calcium and then called at Gavle and Sweden. They returned to Delfzijl with a cargo of timber. He states that he was unable to desert from the ship as at that time the Swedes were returning deserters to their ships.
6. The second journey which he made was Delfzijl, Finland and return with cargo of timber. the ship was then laid up. He then transferred to the "NOORDWIJK", Captain VAN DORP, owners ERHARDT & DEKKERS. This ship sailed with coal from Rotterdam to Hamburg and thence to Oxelosund where they were frozen until the end of March 1942. They returned to Rotterdam in April 1942. MULHOLLAND made two further similar journeys and then signed off at Rotterdam, having completed his nine months training.
7. He then spent about 20 days in hospital with stomach trouble. Then, after two weeks holiday, he started studying at the Rotterdam Nautical School in order to obtain his 3rd Mate's ticket. This school, however, was badly organised and little attention was paid to studies. As MULHOLLAND had no sufficient money to waste, he left this school mid-October 1942 and attended small navigation classes run by A. KLOP, 165 Van Musschenbroekstraat, The Hague. He was able to study satisfactorily there and passed his examinations in February 1943.
8. He then signed on as 3rd Mate with the "BEVERWIJK" 5000 tons, owners ERHARDT & DEKKERS, Captain VROOLIJK of 15 van Ghestellaan. Captain VROOLIJK was neighbour of MULHOLLAND's.
9. The "BEVERWIJK" sailed to Hamburg and thence to Sweden. They then made several trips to Emden, Lulea and return but did not call at Rotterdam again. On one of the occasions when the ship called at Sweden, two Dutch deserters were put back on the ship by the Swedish authorities, so MULHOLLAND realised that deserters were still being handed back.
10. MULHOLLAND remained on this ship until August 1943 when he began studying for his 2nd Mate's ticket under the guidance of KLOP.
11. MULHOLLAND carried out very little clandestine work as he was studying hard and was also at sea a good deal. However, he did take part in the spreading of the clandestine papers "TROUW" and "VRIJ NEDERLAND", bundels of which he received from [large part redacted]
12. MULHOLLAND also came into contact with an organisation which helps to support the families of seaman who are now serving with the Allied Forces. The member of the organisation whom he knew was a certain Mr. TRAPMAN, Dutch, of Hillegensberg who used to be an official of the "Vereenigde Nederlandsche Stoomvaart Mij." MULHOLLAND got to know TRAPMAN through KORTEWEG. he also met TRAPMAN at Mrs. SISSINCH's house who was also a friend of KORTEWEG. Captain W. VROOLIJK of the "BEVERWIJK" was also a member of the organisation.
13. MULHOLLAND's assistance to the organisation consisted of his being given food by VROOLIJK and he then took this to the various seaman's families. MULHOLLAND adds that he also used to take letters to sweden from the families of seamen serving in the Allied forces. Description of VROOLIJK:
Age: About 50.
Build: Strongly built.
Face: Greying hair, round weathered.
Description of TRAPMAM:
Age: About 50.
Height: 1 metre 70.
Build: Average figure.
Face: Greying hair.
JOURNEY TO THE UK.
14. MULHOLLAND began to hear from other members of the crews of the shipping company ERHARDT & DEKKERS that deserters were no longer being handed back to their ships. MULHOLLAND then decided that he would desert in Sweden.
15. Therefore in mid-October 1943 he signed on with the "RANDWIJK", owners ERHARDT & DEKKERS, Captain VAN DORP. he received no warning about deserting and states that he has not heard of any reprisals being taken against the families of deserters.
16. The "RANDWIJK" left Rotterdam with a cargo of coal for Holtenau and was then bound empty for Finland. However, the ship passed through the Stockholm Scheeren and MULHOLLAND decided to swim ashore.
17. At about 18.00 hours on 02-11-1943 MULHOLLAND lowered himself over the side by means of a rope and swam ashore. He left the ship during the changing of pilots so there was no danger of his being drawn against the propeller. MULHOLLAND was able to take some clothes with him wrapped up in a piece of waterproof sailing cloth.
18. He went to the pilot's station where he changed his clothing and was collected by the Naval police and taken to the Naval headquarters. He was then taken over by the police and transferred to Noortalje. There he was interrogated and taken to Stockholm where he spent the day in prison and was re-interrogated.
19. Next day, 04-11-1943 MULHOLLAND was released and allowed to proceed to the Dutch Consulate. he spent about a month in Stockholm supported by the Dutch Consulate but became very bored with nothing to do and therefore in December 1943 he obtained employment as errand boy with a bicycle transport service.
20. On 31-12-1943 MULHOLLAND became employed by the Dutch Intelligence Service in Stockholm and assisted in vetting of escapees. MULHOLLAND was actually approached by GEVERS-DEYNOOT to this work.
21. Finally on 10-02-1944 MULHOLLAND embarked on aircraft G-AGFO at Gothenburg, arriving Leuchars 11-02-1944 and was later sent to the RVPS 12-02-1944.
22. MULHOLLAND states that he knows BANGMA (RPS 17.106) as he was a fellow student at the Amsterdam Nautical School. The report on BANGMA confirms that he attended the Amsterdam Nautical School until July 1940.
23. MULHOLLAND appears to be a sincere and level headed young man. He has obviously taken his nautical studies seriously. His reason for deserting in Sweden was in order to join the Allied forces.
24. MULHOLLAND states that he was given a priority seat on the plane coming to the UK because GEVERS-DEYNOOT had asked him if he would be willing to return to Holland as an agent. MULHOLLAND agreed to do so if it was considered necessary but he does not seem to be very keen to return to occupied territory, from which he has only recently escaped. he states that he would actually prefer to join the Navy or Merchant Navy but is willing to serve the Allied war effort in any way he is directed. I do not think he ia any danger from a security point of view.
25. release to the Dutch authorities.
Name: MULHOLLAND, Leonard George.
P.T.C. 30-03-1944 (MI-5 & C only).
MI-5 advice 040-04-1944: Our only information about this man is contained in LRC file RPS/19412.
Born: 20-09-1920, Soerabaya, D.E.I.
Pte. Address: Jan van Ghestellaan 16, Hillegensberg, Holland.
Father: George Max, Dutch
Mother"Constance Eleonore, Dutch. Both at above address.
Remarks N 24-04-1944: To be trained as agent in the field commencing 21-04-1944.
Mil. History: 3rd Mate, Dutch Navy.
This student was a fit and enthusiastic type and carried out his training in an efficient manner. His conduct was most irregular on the morning of his third descent when he considered, without consulting the medical officer that he was unfit to jump, later the day he was passed as fit to jump and was fit to jump at the time of the emplaning. He completed two day descents (did not do leg bag) and one night descent
THREE DESCENTS SECOND CLASS
Profession: Naval officer.
Family: Mother & Father D.E.I. Java. One sister.
Languages: Dutch & English gooed. French fair, German fluent, Swedish fair, Malayah Dialects fluent.
Hobbies: yachting and photography & tennis.
Areas known: South-Holland and surroundings Amsterdam.
Primary School, Java, 7 years from 1926-1933.
1933-1939. Secondary School, Java.
1939-1941. School of Navigation, Amsterdam.
1941-1942. At sea - Baltic Ports.
Feb. 1943 Obtained second-Mate's ticket.
Feb-Oct 1943 at sea.
Oct 1943 Arrived Sweden.
Feb 1944 Arrived England.
Mil. Hist. Nil.
Allotted code number 33 0B.18.
Sgt Hartog STS-24B to Major Fyffe 16-05-1944.
This student was an officer in the Dutch Navy. he is very keen and takes great interest in all subjects during the course. He is of an even temperament and takes everything in his stride. he was born in Java in the Dutch East Indies. His security appears to be good.
STS-24B, Glaschoille House is tijdens de Tweede Wereldoorlog door de Special Operations Executive (SOE) voor trainingsdoeleinden gebruikt.
Sgt Hartog to Major Fyffe STS-24B 23-05-1944.
This student is making good progress, he is a very good shot and certainly very efficient in his demolition work and a neat worker all round. He is very good on WT but appears to be more interested in demolition work.
STS-HQ to Group A 06-05-1944.
Will join P. party for course at Group A Has attended STS-51 but has not undergone and other training.
This student is keeping up his high standard during the whole course, he works extremely well and takes keen interest in all his work and tasks set him. He has good stamina and works well on the schemes.
This student is continuing to work well, he is keen on all subjects. His work is neat when making up demolition charges. he is quite good in handling his weapon and also works well as leader on schemes.
Both these students returned to London from STS-24B on the 10-06-1944 after completing of the course.
One of the best all round on this course. He has a very good theoretical and practical knowledge of most subjects, but does not appear to have an aggressive spirit. He states he would like to organise and lead a small part of 3/4 men, who he knew but I do think he has the capacity necessary to be an organiser or a strong leader of a large band of saboteurs.
I am not certain of his physical courage, otherwise he is ostensible the best all-rounder on the course. Has undoubtedly ability and I incline to agree with my instructor that he has not a great deal of aggressive spirit, (guts). Has worked well and has a pleasant personality.
Spends most of his time with 330B19. Security appears to be good, at least I did not find him very willing to talk about his past.
Undated. Proceed overseas.
23-05-1945. Arrived in the UK from Germany.
ORDERS FOR: SANDERS. TOP SECRET Copy No. I
We are in possession of information concerning several underground movements in HOLLAND. The aspects of these organisations, however, change frequently - often weekly - and part of them may have become penetrated by the enemy.
A. Operation name.
The name of your operation is PODEX and you will be known by this name at the station of your departure.
You will never use this name when you are in the field.
B. Code Names in the Field.
Your field name will be GERARD; this is the only you or your WT operator should use in messages from the field, and it is the name by which you will be known by other members of the organisation.
The operational code name of your partner is RUMMY and his name in the field will be LEO.
The operational code name of your WT operator is GRIBBAGE and his name in the field will be THEODOR.
You will be sent to HOLLAND for the purpose of establishing contacts with underground movements there, and to report to us on the security aspect and desires of such organisations which you may be able to contact.
I. C.S-6 and RVV, Through contact as per Annexe I.
II. Mission MULDER.
Two men were sent to contact MULDER last moon period. The aircraft did not return and, as we have not heard from them, we presume they were lost with the aircraft. You will therefore try to contact MULDER in the manner explained in Annexe II, but you must be careful in case the two were not killed but fell into German hands and may therefore have given their mission and contacts away.
These two men were Cees Dekkers, alias Duiker, mission Poker and Jan Kuenen, mission Football. Their plane was shot down over airfield Gilze-Rijen on 01-06-1944 and everyone on board was killed in the crash.
Your position, therefore is an important one which should not be endangered by the contacts you will have, or may have, with any of these organisations. Your address should be kept secret from all members of underground movements. In Annexe I you have been given some side contacts with these organisations thereby enabling you to communicate with them should you wish to do so - bearing in mind, however, every security precaution to prevent accidents in case these side contacts might have changed.
It is imperative that you should establish contact with your headquarters in London as soon as possible, and to inform us of all details in connection with resistance so that we may be in a position to pass you any instructions which may be necessary.
You should regard your mission as a security measure and by your reports enable us to check up on information received from other sources than yours. This part of your mission is termed in broad lines without further precise instructions, the basis of which is your own illegal work in HOLLAND before your arrival in this country and special information which Lt. DE GRAAF will give you prior to your departure.
You are authorised to build up a small organisation of your own which should be able to give you some scope, but it is imperative that even the members of your own organisation should not be aware of your private address or addresses.
The decisions which you will take in the field should be discussed jointly with LEO. Both of you have the same orders which should be carried out on a close collaboration basis. It is most important, however, that you should not travel or walk together; should one of you be arrested the other will then be able to carry on after having changed his address and isolated the contacts working in a cell system. Should you hear of other agents of our organisation you should not attempt to contact them directly; if you wish to contact them or their organisation this should always be done through a cut-out.
As soon as possible after your arrival you should arrange for at least three post-boxes through which other organisations without contact, or those who have lost contact, will be able to send messages to us through your WT operator in their own code. It is most important that this system should be worked in such a manner and on a secure basis to avoid all possible arrests of you or your operator in the event of the post-boxes addresses failing into enemy hands.
It may be possible for you to give us information concerning enemy movements, and in that event you are authorised to report these to us; you should, however, bear in mind that this is not your primary mission. Annexe III is attached herewith to act as a guide as to the type of information which we desire to receive from you.
You will take steps to organise a reception committee to receive such stores as you may request to be sent to you.
A reception committee should be made up of people of whom you have or can obtain full knowledge and feel absolutely sure. It is imperative that you should bear in mind the security precautions and recruit personnel so that should one man be arrested he will not be in a position to give information which might prejudice other people or the organisation. You should never attend a reception committee unless absolutely necessary.
Once this committee has been formed you will advise us when it is ready to start work, the quantities of containers with which it can safely deal at one time and also send us for approval at least two suggested dropping points at which reception committees could receive stores on any single night; bearing in mind that if several grounds are accepted it might be found necessary to put all the operations together on one night at the various dropping points. The size of the committees will be at your own discretion and will depend upon the quantity of material which you wish to receive.
Normally you will use maps of the Netherlands, scale 1:50.000. If, however, you are unable to procure these maps you may use the ANWB maps in a manner in which you you have been trained, also giving the distances and bearings of the two nearest villages, towns or places. In any case always give the series number and scale of the map which you are using. See Annexe IV.
You have been instructed in reception work and as to the type of grounds that are suitable. It is necessary to keep some distance away from anti-aircraft defences and also avoid zones which are usually patrolled by Germans.
Page 3 of the orders for Mulholland is missing in HS9/1073/4.
b. You will be supplied with Hfl. 150,00 in small money for your immediate needs.
c. The remainder of your personal money, Hfl. 4.850,00 and Ffrs. 2.500,00 and Bfrs. 2.500,00 is in a money belt.
The Hfl. 25.000 will be split up between you and LEO and carried in your money belts.
d. Your partner and your WT operator will each have the sum of Hfl.5.000 and Ffrs. 2.500 and Bfrs. 2.500 on their person.
e. Your code (One-Time-Pad) etc will be camouflaged as in Annexe VII.
f. All your personal baggage and material will be packed together with those of your partner and your WT operator in ONE package, which will be parachuted with you. All the WT equipment will also be included in this ONE package, the equipment being two suitcases packed together. One of these suitcases is of a special construction which has been explained to you.
Cover Story. See Annexe VIII.
Clothing. You will have received these in accordance with your requirements.
Equipment. You have been interviewed as to your requirements for the field and will receive these, plus your parachute equipment, at the station of departure. See Annexe IX.
Documents. You have been issued with a Dutch Identity Card.
Return to this country. You have been interviewed by an officer with regard to routes and have been given all necessary information. See Annexe X.
a. In the field.
You will use the various methodes which you have been taught for communication between yourself, your partner and your WT operator - postboxes - cut-outs, etc. You may also arrange various danger signals.
Your WT operator will be in possession of his own code and equipment for maintenance of two-way contact with LONDON. You will also take with you a One-Time-Pad for your own use. You will do all the encoding and decoding of our messages to you; this must be strictly adhered to for the security of all concerned. The WT operator will only send messages to us concerning technical matters relating to contacts and/or acknowledgement of messages which we shall broadcast by WT. See Annexe XI.
c. Messages by WT.
In order to maintain the security of your WT operator it is necessary that your messages should be kept as short as possible and limited to important information connected with your mission. records of messages exchanged should not be kept.
d. Innocent letters.
I. Code: you will use the convention which you have been taught. See Annexe XII.
II. Address: You will send your innocent Letter to an address as per Annexe X.
III. Signatures: You will sign your Innocent letter GERARD; if we write to you we will sigh KRUIS.
e. BBC Messages.
On the first, second and third days and on the two following Sundays we shall broadcast as per Annexe XIII. This will serve to prove your bona fides.
f. Emergency Address.
It is important that we should remain in contact with you and if possible, you should give us an address before you leave for the field. If you are unable to do this, you should let us have the address at the first possible moment by WT.
Password, see Annexe X.
Reply, see Annexe X.
Should you, your partner and/or your WT operator lose each other on landing, you should meet every Tuesday and Thursday in order to regain contact. See Annexe XV.
You will take with you a pigeon by which you can send a message advising us of a safe landing. Pigeons can also be sent later to your reception committees. By this method you will be able to send us long and coded messages or even film negatives of printed matter, plans, etc.
If we have reason to suppose that you have been arrested and that the Germans are working the transmitter we will ask you an "innocent" question. If you are safe you will give us the correct answer, but if we do not receive the correct answer we shall resume that you are in enemy hands. See Annexe XIV for the question and reply.
6. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS.
Your rank on leaving this country will be 2/Lt. and your salary will be credited to your account with the Dutch Government.
LONDON 27th June 1944.
CS-6 and RVV.
Go to Mr. POTJES, Hillegersberg (Merelstraat 17 or 19) and ask him details about
Ch. Simon THOMAS and
both Adj. inspectors of the Rijksbureau voor de Voedselvoorziening in Oorlogstijd.
If Simon THOMAS is still all right, contact him very cautiously say:
"KOM VAN KAS, CS-6 AS 830. WAT WEET JE VAN BOB?"
Examine if Miss Margot PONGER (kachel en haardenzaak), Noordermarkt (22), Amsterdam, tel. 2900-35052 is still all right; if so ask her whether the contacts of the CS-6 group UTRECHT are penetrated or not. If they are not penetrated, contact them.
If necessary, contacts will be given to you by us, when you are in the field.
Charles Alexandre Simon-Thomas was lid van CS-6. Volgens Kas de Graaf maakte hij deel uit van de laatste topcel van de groep en onderhield hij ook contacten met de Raad van Verzet. Charles Simon-Thomas is gearresteerd in het pension Bernsen aan de Kerkstraat 235 in Amsterdam, waar zich zowel verzetsmensen als Duitse officieren ophielden. Hij huurde daar een kamertje dat via een tussendeur verbonden was met dat van een andere huurder, de spion G.B.A. van Reede. Simon-Thomas werd thuis opgewacht en om half 3 's nachts (06-07-1944) gearresteerd door vijf SD-ers. Bernsen verklaarde na de oorlog dat Simon-Thomas via Kas de Graaf, die ook in het pension gewoond had met zijn verloofde Lies Sluyter, aan zijn kamer gekomen was. Van Reede ontkende bij de arrestatie aanwezig te zijn geweest of er iets mee te maken gehad te hebben. Kas de Graaf zelf bevond zich op het moment van de arrestatie al een half jaar in Londen, waar hij een leidinggevende positie bij het BBO had.
Geboren op 02-01-1919 in Utrecht. Overleden op 29-11-1944 in Hamburg-Hammerbrook, Stadtkreis Hamburg.
Source: Oorlogsgraven Stichting.
Nicolaas Johan Celosse (Banjoewangi, 28 april 1917 - Kamp Vught, 5 september 1944) was verzetsman en Engelandvaarder. Hij werd Bob genoemd.
Bob werd in Banjoewangi geboren op 28 april 1917 als zoon van administrateur Nicolaas Jan Celosse en Maria Dorothea Geul. Hij volgde een opleiding aan de Koloniale Landbouwschool in Deventer en werd inspecteur bij de voedselvoorziening.
Op 10 mei 1940 werd hij ingedeeld bij het garnizoen in Hoorn, waardoor hij aan de slag om de Afsluitdijk en de slag om de Grebbeberg meedeed.
Na de demobilisatie was hij reserve-tweede luitenant. Hij trouwde hij met Gesina Maria Johanna Boeschoten. Ze gingen in de Verhulststaat in Den Haag wonen, waar hij bij het Octrooibureau ging werken. In 1941 verhuisden ze naar Amsterdam. Hij begon in 1942 bij de Ordedienst en kwam in contact met verzetsgroep CS-6. Begin 1943 dook hij onder in Hengelo maar na enkele maanden kwam hij weer naar Amsterdam. In november 1943 besloot hij met Kas de Graaf naar Engeland te gaan. Ze kwamen in februari 1944 aan en Nicolaas kreeg een opleiding bij het Bureau Bijzondere Opdrachten.
Op 30 maart 1944 was hij de commandant van een groepje mannen dat boven de Wieringermeer werd geparachuteerd. Hij werd op 20 mei 1944 gearresteerd en naar Kamp Haaren gebracht waar hij correct werd behandeld. Daarna werd hij naar Kamp Vught overgeplaatst waar hij op 5 september 1944 werd gefusilleerd.
Sophia Maria Josefina Ponger, born 1923 in Amsterdam. She married Anthonius Gerardus Verleun.
I. uw voornaamste contactadres is MEVROUW MULDER,
Thomsonlaan 17B, Laan van Meerdervoort 3 or 7 or10, 1e etage, Den Haag, boven groentewinkel VAN DER WIJK.
Eerste check: in de winkel VAN DER WIJK vragen: "KUNT U MIJ ZEGGEN WAAR MEVROUW MULDER WOONT? IS DAT HIER BOVEN?" Vervolgens 3x kort bellen.
SIGNALEMENT MEVROUW MULDER: 48 jaar, gezet (aan den zware kant), blond-grijzend haar, bleek gelaat.
ZEGGEN: "Is mevrouw Mulder thuis? Ik breng U de groeten van KAREL JANSEN, mag ik even bovenkomen, zoodat wij een oogenblik rustig kunnen praten? Ik moet u zeggen: "H.K. EN WILHELMINA" met het verzoek dit aan Oom Jaap door te geven. -- Is u LEENTJE, de moeder van JO, LEEN en DIT?" Oom Jaap = Mulder, N. Ja.... Ap .. niet ingewilligd.
JO = Oudste dochter, 22 jaar, slank, heeft gewerkt in ziekenhuis te AMSTERDAM.
LEEN = eenige zoon, 18 jaar (op persoonsbewijs 17 jaar), groot forsch, blond scheiding.
DIT = jongste dochter, 17 jaar, mager, zeer slank, middelgroot, was op huishoudschool.
"Is LEEN nog bij TANTE KOOTJE in DORDRECHT. Tante KOOTJE is de echtgenoot van MAJOOR DE BOER, alias OOM WILLEM. -- "Ik zou graag OOM JAAP spreken of KOOS". Groeten doen van OOM WILLEM.
KOOS, de dokter, is beste vriend van OOM JAAP, alias MULDER Vr. N. Trouw. P.B.S. creafulirmo Bom. … …
In de kamer hangt een tekening gemaakt door Anton Pieck van OOM JAAP. De teekening werd gemaakt in 1941, toen beiden in de gevangenis the SCHEVENINGEN zaten, het zoogenaamde "ORANJE HOTEL". U moet direct hier naar uitzien en er naar vragen.
Voorts: KAREL JANSEN verzoekt U zijn groeten over te brengen aan OOM JAAP, KOOS, TOET en de anderen. KAREL JANSEN is vertrokken 25 Januari uit HOLLAND, arriveerde 3 Februari in Spanje, bleef daar drie weken en vertrok via Gibraltar per schip naar Engeland, waar hij 17 Maart arriveerde.
U toont vervolgens twee foto's van KAREL JANSEN, met en zonder snor. Dit is een check in verband met het verzoek van TOET om zijn snor af te scheren en zijn haar achterover te kammen.
II. CONTACT MET OOM JAAP ZELF.
SIGNALEMENT OOM JAAP:
48 jaar, p.l.m. 1,80 m, breed, vierkante schouders, iets hoog in de schouders, peper- en zoutkleurig haar met scheiding, haar vrij kort. Aliassen: MULDER, OOM JAAP, VAN KLAVEREN, MEDDENS. Is thans ernstig ziek.
Het vorenstaande herhalen, allereerst: "H.K. EN WILHELMINA". Er aan toevoegen: "STAPEL is tevens gearriveerd en werkt onder Major SOMER. KAREL JANSEN heeft boodschappen aan STAPEL doorgegeven heeft echter later opdracht gekregen deze zelf uit te voeren aan het Bureau Bijzondere Opdrachten.
Wilt u TOET vragen de groeten over te brengen van KAREL en TON. TOET is vier Juni jarig geweest, gefeliciteerd van KAREL. Hij heeft uit Spanje het telegram ontvangen betreffende de geboorte van de dochter van HARRY op Goede Vrijdag en laatste brieven van Maart en April.
HAARY is bij de Royal Airforce en gaat in de door hem gewenschte opleiding. Wilt u vragen aan KOOS of zijn bijen al een nieuwe koningin hebben? Zou gaarne bericht van U aan KAREL zenden als check-up, inhoudende een stereotiep gezegde van KOOS. Antwoord van KAREL volgt dan binnen één of twee dagen en zal inhouden een stereotiep gezegde van KAREL, met de mededeeling betreffende bijen".
III. Indien OOM JAAP onbereikbaar is, om welke reden dan ook, dan contact zoeken met KOOS, aliassen: WILLEMS, ZEEMAN (- dokter). Dit kan telefonisch via MEVROUE MULDER. Vragen of KOOS direct even komt. (KOOS is tevens bijenhouder). Hij heeft een kast in beheer van KAREL JANSEN.
42 jaar, blond zeer dun haar, zeer lichte scheiding, 1,85 m. stevig gebouwd, Stereotiep gezegde:"Laat ie fijn zijn".
U kunt precies dezelfde mededeelingen doen.
KOOS is tevens fotograaf, ontwikkelaar in België binnengekomen films illegale pers.
Indien geen voorspoedige contactlegging, dan vindt U safehouse: THOMSONLAAN 119. Vragen naar Heer of MEVROUW MEDENDORP. Stoep, portiek met met vier deuren, neem rechtsche van twee middelste deuren, naamplaatje op de deur, doch mogelijk verwijderd.
SIGNALEMENT MEVROUW MEDENDORP:
p.l.m. 40 jaar, middelgroot, vrij gezet, donderblond, loenst eenigszins met één oog, spreekt snel, heet SINIE.
SIGNALEMENT HEER MEDENDORP:
p.l.m. 40 jaar, lang, 1,85 m. mager, slank, zeer dun achterover gekamd haar. Wordt genoemd: DIEKE. Twee maal kort bellen.
"Ik zou graag den heer of mevrouw MEDENDORP even spreken" (het beste moment ligt tusschen vijf en zes). "Ik ben … ik breng u de groeten van KAREL JANSEN en van HENRI aan JOKE. Groeten aan TOET van KAREL". Laat foto's zien. Verbinding zoeken met KOOS ZEEMAN via MIEN en TOET. Geef bijzonderheden over reis KAREL JANSEN (die zij reeds weten, check-up). Zeg: "KAREL kan momenteel geen bijen houden in LONDON. Doet U vooral de groeten aan WITTEVEEN".
U kunt verder alles zeggen, behalve de namen MULDER, MEDDENS, VAN KLAVEREN en STAPEL.
Tweede safehouse: adres OOSTDAM, Café "DE GROOT HERTOGIN" hoek Groot Hertoginnenlaan en Kronenburgerweg. Groeten van HARRY (KOSMOS). Gaan zitten aan de leestafel en vragen naar de heer OOSTDAM.
The following questionnaire should be studied with a view to sending us military information to LONDON whenever it is possible to do so, bur subject always to the following conditions:
Information must not be specifically collected but will be confined to items which may gleaned in the normal course of events.
Its despatch to LONDON must in no wat jeopardise your proper activities nor must it be allowed to overburden your communications.
No information other than that included in the ten points of the questionnaire may be sent.
Only facts will be reported. Vague reports from another party or deductions will not be sent.
This questionnaire does not come into force until D-Day.
Full particulars of source of information shall whenever possible be given.
1. Movements of flotillas of light naval craft of major naval units.
2. Canal movements of light naval craft.
3. Arrivals of large bodies of troops in an area, including, if known, numbers, identifications, presence of armoured fighting vehicles, names of commanders and direction from which arrived.
4. Departures of large bodies of troops from an area, including, if known, numbers, identifications, presence of armoured fighting vehicles, names of commanders and direction in which left.
5. Passage of troops trough an area, of the order of ten trains upwards on road convoys over a period of three hours or more, including numbers, identifications, presence of armoured fighting vehicles, names of commanders and direction of movement.
6. Large movements of G.A.F. flying personnel, including numbers, place of departure, direction in which left and names of commanders.
7. a. Location of military headquarters of regiments and higher formations, including, if known, identifications and names
b. Arrivals and departures of such headquarters.
8. Location of main Gestapo headquarters and records.
9. establishment of new large dumps, including the exact site and the nature of the content.
10. Construction of new defensive positions on a large scale, including the exact areas covered, the progress of the work, the numbers of employees and the nature of the work, e.g. concrete emplacements, wire, anti-tank ditches.
a. Reports will invariably include the time, date and place and in the case of movements, the direction.
b. Facts only will be reported, deduction will not be made.
NOTES ON THE ECEPTION OF PERSONNEL AND STORES BY AIR.
1. MAP REFERENCES FOR RECEPTION (OR ANY OTHER) POINTS.
If possible, use the Dutch Military Map 1:50.000, each sheet of which bears a number. Each sheet is cross-lined with 40 vertical lines numbered from 00 to 40 and 25 horizontal lines numbered from 50 to 75, the distance between the two lines being 1 km. To obtain the map reference, first take the number of the vertical line to the west of the point and add the estimated distance from the line to the point in tenths of a km. - each 2mm - is 1/10th of a km. Then take the number of the horizontal line to the south of the point and, once again, add the estimated distance from the line to the point in tenths of a km. In this way a six-figure map reference is reached.
If the first mentioned map cannot be procured, us e the ANWB Autokaart van Nederland 1:200.000. This has three sheets: each sheet has reference numbers going from west to east and running into three figures and other numbers going north to south and running into two figures only.
Three figures must always be given for the west-east reference; thus, for example, 2 is shown as 002: 20 as 020; 59 as 059. Similarly two figures must always be given for the north-south reference.
A reference on this map, correct to about 1 km, therefore consists of five figures only. Map reference of dropping point will be supported in every case by the bearing and distance from two readily distinguishable landmarks or churches of towns near the point. This is essential in order to locate the exact position of the point.
Remember to specify which sheet is in question.
If circumstances oblige you to work of some quite different map, you must tell us which maps you are using, scale, sheet and date of issue.
2. THE RECEPTION POINTS.
The places selected must be at least 300 metres square and reasonably easy to locate from the air at night. Rivers, canals, lakes and straight stretches of road are good landmarks.
Keep at least 200 metres away from woods or lines of tall trees.
3. THE RECEPTION COMMITTEE.
This should consist of four persons per container expected but proportions may be reduced if the number of containers is large. Experience will show whether, for instance, fifteen men can dispose rapidly of six containers, their load and their parachutes.
Holes or other suitable hiding places must be prepared in advance for the speedy disposal of containers and parachutes.
4. THE ACTUAL RECEPTION.
Air operations have often failed owing to lack of adequate ground lights, these lights must be as strong as possible and clearly visible up to a height of 600 metres. they should have an arc of 60°.
The dropping area should be marked by two red torches and one white one arranged as in the diagram below. One additional white torch (flashing the agreed recognition letter) should be placed at the downwind en d of the line so as to indicate to the aircraft the direction of the wind:
FLASHING AGREED RECOGITION LETTER.
On hearing the approaching aircraft, the lights should be switched on and your recognition letter should be flashed continuously until you see that the aircraft has started to drop its load. The torches should be held at armslenght and pointed towards the aircraft throughout the operation until it has been completed. It is essential that the pilot should be able to see the lights the whole time, especially when he has once been over and is circling in order to make his run-up.
On seeing the lighting system, the aircraft will approach flying up wind and will release the load when approximately over the last red torch. The wind will cause the load to drift back to the field.
Before extinguishing your lights make sure you have your complete load as, if the aircraft is carrying a large load it may make over run-ups.
MULHOLLAND, Leonard George. DUTCH Section.
Born: SOERABAYA, D.E.I., 20-09-1920.
Alias SANDERS, Leonard George @ GERARD @ DIJKERMAN, Leonard Gerard.
This agent was picked up in a razzia in Rotterdam on 11-11-1944. Deported for work in GERMANY. Since then various postcards have been received from agent, postal address being BAMBERG, Bavaria. Last news was via one of our WT operators on 2 Feb 1945, he sent us a message from agent, which gave contact address "Bahnhof, OLTBERG, Abteilung, Zugbegleiter". We have told him to stay in GERMANY and if possible to build up cells amongst Dutch workers. Height 6' 1". Oval face; normal nose; fair hair; hazel eyes; scar inside of left arm.
ADE/A/5221 30 April 1945.
To: BSS/A. From: ADE/A.
Copy to: N.
1. The attached message has been received from 3rd US Army and the information contained therein has been confirmed with N Section and found to be correct.
2. De code name of this agent is PODEX. Would you please take urgent action to obtain his return, keeping N informed of the progress made.
3. This confirms my telephone conversation of to-day with your secretary.
SECRET # 360
April 29, 1945.
For: Col. SAUNDERS, SOE LONDON
From: THIRD ARMY.
Leonard George MULHOLLAND aka Dijkerman, alias SANDERS held at Interrogation Center. Claims was dropped 6 June 1944 into EPE, HOLLAND with WT Operator THEODOR. Gives references Maj. DOBSON, Captain KNIGHT, DRIVER. Will you identify and pick up soonest?
BSSA/KV/3120 1st May, 1945.
To: ADE/A From: BSS/A
Copy for N.
Reference your ADE/A/5221 of the 30th April on the subject of the N-Section agent PODEX.
I have arranged for a message to be sent through SCI channels to US Third Army identifying this agent and asking for his immediate repatriation to UK and have also telegraphed to No.3 SF requesting them to liaise with Third Army to assist in the necessary formalities of getting the body back to this country.
Real name: MULHOLLAND Date 22-06-1945.
Field names: GERARD, PODEX, KOOS Code nr. D. 23
1. OPERATIONAL DATES.
Source left England on 6th July 1944 and returned from Holland the 30th May 1945.
Source's mission was to visit the heads of the KP, RVV, OD and LO as liaison officer; to see if he could link them up and make them work together and also to start a new organisation, if possible, for sabotage work.
Source dropped "blind" at EPE, 20 km north of Apeldoorn, together with LEO and THEODOR. Source was given three addresses in London which he was to contact, but they were of no use as these three people had already been arrested by the time source arrived in Holland (Kas de Graaf had no idea that CS-6 was completely wiped out).
LEO, who had not been in Holland for eight years (?), went off with THEODOR and source went off by himself. He encountered some SS men who were armed - apparently the SS were not always armed prior to D-Day; this somewhat alarmed source as he thought that possibly they had been spotted on landing, but he was a Dutch Merchant Navy officer on leave in Holland from Germany, which was in accordance with his cover story and which they accepted.
Source went to Rotterdam to see SISSINGH, whom he knew before he escaped to the UK and who could place him in contact with PIETER DE BEER, leader of the KP. Source had written SISSINGH a postcard saying he would meet him at a certain place, and SISSINGH took source straight to PIETER DE BEER. Source told DE BEER he could arrange the delivery of arms, etc. He experienced no difficulty with controles between the time of his landing and his contact with DE BEER.
4. SITUATION IN AREA.
The public were quite willing to help at the time of source's arrival, provided it was a small way; but in matters of lending their houses for WT transmissions they were less disposed to assist.
Source's cover was that of an officer of the Dutch Merchant Navy on leave from Germany in Holland. He had the correct papers for this, having brought them from Holland to England with him, but as the period of leave could only possibly last 2/3 weeks at the most, he had to bring these up to date accordingly. They were, however, all in order and he had no trouble and never had to change his story. Later, when source went to Germany he still maintained he was an officer of the Dutch Merchant Navy.
PODEX distinguished between the work of the four organisations KP, RVV, OD and LO as follows:
KP and LO. KP carried out attacks on ration offices to obtain the ration cards, which were handed over to the LO for distribution.
RVV. Intelligence and sabotage work.
OD. Source never could understand what these people were doing, and thought it must be for something after the war.
These organisations worked separately, except the KP and LO liaised for distribution. LO was very numerous as they were responsible for the distribution of approximately 180.000 ration cards a month to all the "onderduikers". They took 10.000, 15.000, sometimes 30.000 cards at a time and once in Rotterdam 38.000 from various offices. The head men of RVV and KP were often together but did not work together. About a month before source arrived they had arranged that KP would do all the round-ups and RVV would do the sabotage work. The following diagram of RVV in Rotterdam was submitted:
Source did not personally do any recruiting. The methode employed was to start from a personal recommendation by a member and in the course of conversation in the first stages, the potential recruit's reaction to the suggestion of underground work was ascertained. They were tried out without being asked to join, being told that they would be put in touch with the underground. Source did not do this work himself but instructed other people to do it in this way. The ultimate criterion was a study of their behaviour during the whole war.
A. Weapon Training.
Weapon training was done in Rotterdam by LUDO (de Stoppelaar) and WIM (Hoogewerff). Source was told that LUDO trained about 12.000 men in all. The whole of Rotterdam knew these two and if they went out they met people they had instructed every few yards.
At first the instructions was arranged with a KP liaison officer in Rotterdam who had to arrange places and bring the students and instructors together. LUDO could not always find him and afterwards they told source the addresses of these people so that he could go there and instruct them but it was rather unsatisfactory because they could not find people, and arrived either too late or not at all/
Eventually instruction was proceeding at the rate of about 20-30 a day under much better conditions; it was arranged that this should take place in a room opening off a large gymnasium hall. About 100-150 men would go to the hall for gymnastics and from these people every half hour they would take 10 or so up to a separate room to instruct them in arms. There was a fixed code word for entry. The doors were covered by guards. The gymnastic went on all the time and the instruction went on in a separate room which could not be seen from the street.
Afterwards they trained about 20 instructors in arm, so that they could travel about the country. Instruction was given mostly in the handling of Stens. Some of the students were familiar with weapons already and they were instructed in the use of Bazooka's and Bren guns.
B. Sabotage Training.
Those who were interested and showed promise, received instruction in sabotage methodes, as well as weapon training. They were told how to make a railway charge and how to handle Limpets, which it was hoped would be useful for naval operations. Instruction too place under the same conditions as the arms training.
C. Security Training.
Source gave instruction in security in Rotterdam. He placed out some of the recruits, took all their papers from them to see whether they were in order and demonstrated why it was necessary to pay attention to the content of their pockets. Sometimes he would take 20 or 30 men together and give them general instruction in security, but he was really responsible for the finishing touches. New recruits were always better at security than the older ones who were careless. In spite of his efforts, security became very bad; after September things became very dangerous and there was a tightening up by the C.E. forces (Counter Espionage).
Before source was deported to Germany on 11th November, he created his own C.E. section but he does not know what success it had. It had become necessary as they found that some of their houses were being observed by strange people standing outside and some of their members reported being followed. These people were probably from the NSB.
He was paid from London, having taken money with him and using it until it was exhausted. Recruits were paid if they needed money. they objected to expense sheets with their names on and these were withdrawn. There was no fixed wage but a limit was imposed; a bachelor would receive up to 25 Guilders a week, a married man 30, with one child 35, etc, etc and if the man was already earning some money, these expenses were adjusted accordingly.
10. SECURITY RULES FOR THE ORGANISATION.
They were not given pistols; but if they had their own pistols they were told not to carry them, especially if they had good papers and good cover. Some of the boys had so little cover and bad papers, that it was necessary to carry a pistol for their own safety.
Very few people were told the location of the arms stores and they were told not to tell anybody else.
Recruits were instructed not to meet together but to go their own way unless participating in an operation.
They were not to recognise each other in the street and should not hold meetings; they had to have meetings sometimes, however, and were told not to attract attention by leaving their bicycles outside against the wall of the building where they met.
Recruits were told that the punishment for disobedience was death but there were no cases of this penalty being paid.
A. Only five people knew the HQ building - the organiser, the liaison officer, a girl courier, a girl secretary and a despatch rider. This HQ was connected by a secret telephone with another address where others, who had to be near to the HQ, were stationed. There was a correspondence address where mail was delivered and collected by couriers.
B. Safety Signals.
It was understood that they should never answer the telephone until 5 separate calls had been made.
Cover for living in HQ villa: The story was that the organiser who lived there was a bachelor and one who hired a room upstairs for his art collection.
C. Safe Houses. There were no houses set apart to be used as refuges.
12. COMMUNICATION INTERNAL.
Never used post or letter box.
The "black" telephone was used. Telephones were fixed between all addresses and HQ.
They could speak on the black telephone without fear of interception, but when they had to use the ordinary telephone veiled language was used and they had code words for the names of the houses.
Couriers (girls on shopping expeditions) were kept separate as much as possible. If a courier were captured she would not know much and could only say that she took a letter down from one place to another. They employed three girls, who did all the HQ courier work and there were in addition 20 or 30 others who performed smaller tasks. the letters they carried were in clear, but were not addressed and had no address inside. No courier was ever captured.
Secret Censorship. Source's organisation did not use the post because it was subject to censorship and very slow; also they did not wish to put any addresses on letters.
Source's organisation regarded letter-boxes as likely to cause suspicion and slow.
They had organised a very efficient inter-urban despatch rider service, which operated on bicycle and each stage of the journey was not more than 20 to 30 km. No permit was needed for cycling outside towns.
13. COMMUNICATIONS - EXTERNAL.
Source sent some messages by pigeon but he never heard if they reached England. Altogether he sent away about 20 pigeons carrying micro-photographs. On one occasion he sent 10 pigeons each with the same picture - the defences of the North Sea coast in Holland.
B. Innocent Letter.
Source used "innocent" letters from Germany using Playfair conventions. The postcard reached London, via Switzerland and Sweden (addresses for which he had been given in London). They took about a month or 3 weeks. Source never had a reply but he knew from the C/S that they had reached their destinations. the messages were about 30 letters in length. In order to post them in Germany it was necessary to produce all his papers at the post office, but as his identity in Germany was "legal", the production of a sheaf of documents from his pocket enabled him to post his mail.
C. Courier through the lines.
The courier, who went through Brabant to the Allied army was sent to report on the position in Holland.
Source did all the encoding himself and never kept copies of messages. later it was arranged that copies should be kept long enough for a repetition to be provided if it were asked for from London.; then all copies were destroyed. Most messages came through well. They sent off 140 messages between July and November. each one was an average of 65 groups in length and he did sent one message of 125 groups. He used One-Time-Pad cipher and this was found satisfactory and quick. No other methods were used. messages were sent to the WT operator by courier.
There were two housed from which transmissions were made, which were found by source. It became very difficult to get an address, because so many people were arrested. Source would go to a potential house and say that the intending tenant could not come himself; he would observe whether the room was suitable for transmission or not. In later stages it was found better to tell people what was required as it was dangerous to transmit from a house where they were afraid. Source took them into confidence first and if he found they were unwilling asked them to forget the incident. This worked satisfactorily, as far as he was concerned.
He had no complains to make about communications with London.
Source was sometimes with the operator when transmitting in order to give him confidence and act as guard, usually armed with a Sten or pistol, but usually the operator did not have a guard.
At that time they knew all the DF-cars by their numbers, which were never changed. The operator was a little nervous of DF-ing.
14. ENEMY C.E.
Attitude of the local Dutch police. Dutch police in Rotterdam were not very helpful. They included a number of young people who were in the NSB and no one had to be very careful with them. Some of them were antagonistic to resistance and they were a nuisance, stealing bicycles, insisting on controlling papers, etc. NSB members were rather stupid and for the most part middle-aged or young people.
Gestapo. Source had nothing to do with them personally. In Holland there were more SD than Gestapo.
The SD wore civilian clothes. he never came into contact with the Abwehr.
Once when returning from a dropping operation carrying compromising material, in the form of a piece of silk and a pistol, concealed in a basket of onions, they had to pass through a control. This was about 8 a.m. in the morning and when the Germans stopped them and asked them for their papers they were suspicious and asked why the were so dirty. They replied that the had been collecting onions and were allowed to pass.
On another occasion, when travelling by car from The Hague to Rotterdam together with certain high officials in the underground movement on their way to see the Head of the Resistance for all Holland, they were stopped by a control which happened to include the Chief of the Gestapo in The Hague. They were immediately told to alight from the car, separated and interrogated in turn for about half an hour, being asked who they were, what they were doing and how they all came to be together in the car. They had fortunately prepared a cover story for just such an emergency; it was that they had all separately asked for a lift. After half an hour's questioning they were permitted to pass on but not before the chauffeur had received a warning about giving strange people lifts, being told that if one of the passengers would have been revealed as a terrorist, the whole lot of them would have been shot.
Informers. Members of the NSB were employed by the SD to watch certain houses and to follow the people who came out of them. Informant was arranging a special section of his organisation to act as C.E. group with the object of dealig with such people (see para 8 c).
Provocation. No example of this.
Penetration. He knows that in the organisation there were cases of provocation and states that the low levels of the RVV group in Rotterdam may have been penetrated by the enemy but that the security was sufficiently good to prevent it going any higher.
Informant was arrested in the course of a razzia for forced labour in Germany on 11th November 1944. The enemy never discovered his association with the underground work at the time of his arrest. he was taken to Germany and provided with legal papers including a passport and cards showing that he was employed by the German railways. He was not interrogated.
Between July and November 1944 informant was present at three dropping operations in the Rotterdam area, but was responsible for planning many more. He planned the first dropping of arms and sabotage materials which took place in Holland. The arrangements he had to make were to ensure that the area was free of Germans, that transport was available and that couriers brought a daily report on the latest developments at each ground. He comments that London did not seem to understand all the difficulties involved and the work required before being able to submit a dropping ground. AS reception committee required about 15 men for a single aircraft load. He requested London not to send the planes too late so as to give them plenty of time to clear the ground before sunrise. On the reception of the BBC message, transport was sent from a central pool in Rotterdam; it was usually a milk or post van. About thirty grounds were in use and reception committees were to a certain extent mobile.
Once during his absence about 200 Grüne Polizei raided a ground, burning down some of the neighbouring farmhouses and killing two men.
Other casualties included the landing of containers on farm-houses; the container parachutes not opening; containers opening in the air and the load being scattered far and wide, as well as damaged.
S-Phone was not used by him.
He did not participate in propaganda activities, but civilians who were not in resistance work often did so. Informant says that anyone picking up a leaflet was shot at once, and when leaflets were dropped right in the centre of the city of Rotterdam many casualties were caused.
Radio orange was unsatisfactory. A case was quoted in which R.O. had requested that the boats come out on an unofficial strike. Plans were put in operation and London informed; and the Germans were not suspicious until Radio orange gave away the whole game by a premature announcement with the result that the Tug Boat skippers were obliged to "dive under at once".
Radio Orange was quite unaware of the real situation in Holland and apparently did not remember that RVV and KP were essentially illegal and underground.
The distribution of news was done sometimes by typewriter, 20 or 30 copies of a bulletin being made by one person. members of the organisation were advised to do this by informant who also warned them not to let this interfere with their real activities.
18. CRITICISMS OF THE MISSION.
Suits with no markings are more likely to arouse suspicion than ones marked "Made in England".
The standard issue of fountain pens, scissors, etc to agents is dangerous.
Too many people were sent to the same area in Rotterdam, where they had to be found jobs and personnel became superfluous.
There was too much theory attached to the security taught in England; this resulted in an exaggeration of the dangers. People ended up by being afraid of the Germans.
Doctors were particularly helpful and are able to cover up many activities. he himself lived at a doctor's house; if it had been necessary nine of ten bicycles could have been seen standing outside the house without causing any suspicion. Members could have telephoned him or spoken of arrangements for an operation in all innocence.
If accosted by some one showing interest in your activities, attempt to take the initiative.
20. ACTIVITIES IN GERMANY.
From Rotterdam he was sent to Nuremburg where they sorted into their various catagories; he was then sent on to Bamberg.
He made a contact in Pfals, then behind the German lines. There were a few Germans whom one could trust and he got into conversation with one by chance, after having been in Germany for about 2½ months. He was given this address as a useful one which could help him to get home. He did not use it as the frontline moved back. He built up a small group of railway workers in Bamberg, which carried out "sabotage insaisissable"; by tempering with the "oil pads" on railway wagons they put between 150-200 out of action and caused a delay of two or three days.
They also interfered with deliveries of ball-bearings on the trains from Schweinfurt. When working in an engine shed he was provided with useful information by a German railway official, who told him not to drop anything into a certain spot inside a locomotive. He awaited the opportunity and put half a dozen out of action.
Upon arrival of the American Forces in Bamberg (14th April 1945), informant reported his activities, which they refused to believe and imprisoned him for 2 weeks together with 16 Nazi's. The innocent letter (see para 11 B) contained details of his position and requesting London to send someone to contact him to enable him to continue working. He arranged a safe house for the agent he expected. Nobody came, however, although informant believes that a Belgian was sent out.
He returned to the UK at the end of May 1945.
Len Mulholland wrote a book about being an agent called "Childhood, War and Peace" 1920-1950. ISBN 141207320-0.