N Dutch K.1
Name: KUENEN, Gerrit Jan.
Born: 13-01-1918, Aalten.
Occupation: Engineering draughtsman.
Pte. address: Munnikkenweg 100, Beverwijk, Holland.
Father: Gerrit Jan Engelbertus Hendrikus Kuenen, Dutch.
Mother: Gerritje Johanna Theodora Roelofswaard, Dutch, Enschede, Holland
Brother: Willem Kuenen.
Sister: Johanna Margaretha Kuenen.
All at: Munnikkenweg 100, Beverwijk.
Remarks 30-03-1943: To be trained as agent 02-04-1943.
ALIAS: KOOPS. G.J.
O.S.A. signed: 18-04-1943
S.D. signed 02-05-1943.
NL to MT 06-05-1943.
Please arrange for this student to to to Group B schools on 16-05-1943.
D/CE-M.1 to MT-4 14-05-1943.
There is no security objection to this student proceeding to Group-B on 16-05-1943.
Sgt. Mendes STS-3 07-04-1943.
Very determined fellow with plenty of willpower. Carried out instructions with regards to security (viz identity, cover story, etc). with understanding. Pro-English and American sympathies.
Born 13-01-1918 Aalten.
Technical School (Middelbaar Technisch Onderwijs) Haarlem.
Profession: Technical designer-inspector of the foundries at Ymuiden after the invasion; left Holland on 05-06-1941 alone via Belgium and France. Was 6½ months in France especially Toulouse and Perpignan (Holland House). Left France end of December 1941. without papers for Spain. He was caught in Spain and sentenced to 1 month imprisonment and 2 months concentration camp. Was free in Madrid for two months. Left Spain on 05-06-1942 on the 'Labo de Bona Esperanta' for the Dutch West Indies. Arrived there on 27-06-1942 (Curaçao) and stayed there 10 weeks - as Sgt. Instructor Wireless Transmission. Went afterwards via New York to Canada to the Dutch Camp at Guelph. Left Canada on 12-12-1942 for the UK. Rather good example of his character: his fiancee, a Dutch girl, who he knew since his schooldays in Holland, is now living with her mother in the States (New York). the girl is coming to England end of June as they had planned to get married. All the same, Nol hopes to be sent away before then to avoid making the subsequent parting too painful. Also: he is not advising her to stay in the States as he would have to give reasons for advising this, reasons which might endanger security of movement. Knows J-2 and J-3 very well (Was with them in New York and Canada).
Natural security mindedness. Good. Only danger may lie in the fact that he is inclined to speak too much. By this I do not mean that he says the wrong things, but that he lacks the necessary discretion to remain in the background when this is required. Character: No lack of courage and determination. Temperate habits: drinking and smoking moderate. Quite intelligent and resourceful. Emotional a little high strung.
I would like to stress the view previously mentioned that he is emotionally high strung. Also that he is less resourceful than firstly suggested. Fortunately there is a resolute streak in his character which will considerably help him if he gets himself into difficulties. I mean he is not a person to abide with a decision taken to his detriment without him putting up a struggle to change it.
Not only a very emotional character as previously intimated but also very quickly flustered and agitated when he feels he is under observation. Hands become shaky and speech broken and uncertain. Otherwise lively disposition.
Natural security mindedness rather good, but lack of discretion in so far that he tends to blurt out things under provocation. He is very excitable and then will lose control over his nerves. He is aware of this shortcoming and maintains that his nerves have been in a bad shape ever since the days of his imprisonment in the Vichy Labour Camp and the Spanish concentration camp. He doesn't lack courage and determination. His reactions to security instructions always have been good, though marked by a certain impatience and defiance if for some reason or other he deemed they differed with his own view of the matter.
D/CE-M.1 to N 28-09-1943.
The attached letter was posted in the open post at Guildford, Surrey. Censorship authorities state that the soldier usually uses PO box 187 which is that used by your students. Are the contents innocuous as far as you are concerned?
Sgt. Hartog STS-40 14-10-1943.
This student comes from Beverwijk in Holland. His father is on the State Railways and he has also worked there as volunteer. he has shown great interest in this course dealing with the S-Phone and also the Eureka/Rebecca, but notwithstanding he has set this mind on demolition work and does not want to go in for reception committee work. He has plenty of determination and appears to know his job. He is security minded. He is very disappointed that he has been waiting all this time as he has been promised to go over some time ago and it is now October and he is still in England.
STS-HQ to Commdt Group-C 28-09-1943.
This student wil attend STS-40 for course S-Phone and Eureka commencing 04-10-1943.
Was instructed in the use of the leg-bag and a demonstration descent was carried out for his benefit.
REPORT CONCERNING KUENEN @ VAN DEN BERG.
On Saturday, 18th March 1944, I went to The Grove, West Dulwich with Sgt. A and Sgt. B. At about 9:30 P.M. I saw the ex BI agent Kuenen enter the saloon in civilian clothes. He was obviously drunk and jovially greeted several British persons sitting down at the tables. I instructed the agents Sgt. A and Sgt. B to go back to our establishment. Since I thought it would not be at all dangerous to talk to Kuenen myself, I decided to speak to him. In the meantime Kuenen had gone to the adjoining bar and I waited in the passage for him, as I knew it was one of his favourite occupations to loiter between the two bars and to contact various females in the two bars.
When he appeared I spoke to him. He was startled and seizing my hand, cried:"Piet old boy, let me see how many pins they have given you" and suiting the action to the word, he felt at my collar to find how many stars I had. After having asked him, he told me that he had already learned about my return some time ago. He had heard from Mrs. Bates, an ex-domestic help in our establishment. This woman saw me a week after my arrival at the Dutch HQ at 71 Park Street, as I went from one room to another. Kuenen had already told me, on my enquiring, that he was now working for the British, since Lieftinck saw no way of getting rid of him and they were now doing things above France; but that he and six other lads were trying to get to sent to Holland. He then asked about Johnson and I told him he was all right. He also told me that he continually went to The Grove because he still had an affaire with the same woman from West Dulwich. An RAF man came out of the saloon at that moment, a good friend of Kuenen, who was also very drunk and who interrupted us and asked us both if we would buy him a drink; whereupon Kuenen offered him a pound to go and buy a drink for himself, which was refused.
In connection with the previous report from Lt. Cmdr. Child concerning a Dutch officer who is said to have told a certain Mrs. Trevor (?) in The Grove that I had not gone to Australia, as had been my cover story, but had been to Holland and had come back: it appears that this must have been Kuenen, since the personal descriptions tally.
It appears to me that this ia a very clear case of insufficient security which must not be allowed to continue, certainly as regards Kuenen, taking into account the fact that our new agents are still being housed in West Dulwich. The British and Dutch authorities in question should take the necessary precautions.
Who wrote this report, is Piet his alias or his real name? He returned from Holland in the beginning of March 1944. SOE however only started to drop agents on the 1st of April 1944, so it must be a SIS/BI agent.
ORDERS FOR: KOOPS. TOP SECRET Copy nr. 1.
In preparation for and during the invasion of Western Europe by the United Nations there are many useful and important tasks which can be preformed by loyal patriots in HOLLAND. For the execution of many of these tasks members of organisations already existing and of the general public, can be usefully employed. The task of sabotage instructor can be considered highly important.
a. Operation Name.
The name of your operation is FOOTBALL and you will be known by this name at the station of your departure. You will never use this name when you are in the field.
b. Code Name in the Field.
I. Your field name will be WILLEM. This is the only name you should use in messages from the field and it is the name by which you will be known by other members of the organisation.
II. The operational name of the WT operator going with you is POKER and his name in the field and in telegrams is KEES. (Cees Dekkers)
You will go to HOLLAND for the purpose of instructing members of the organisation in sabotage and the general use of explosives and incendiaries. For the time being KEES may use you as reception leader but this is left to his judgement. KEES will have with him Hfl. 25.000 and three directives to pass to the organisation. KEES may use you also to make contacts for him.
You and KEES will be dropped together in HOLLAND by parachute on the first favourable night during the Jume moon period, at a point which will be shown to you prior to your departure. See Annexe.
Immediately upon landing you will bury your parachute and equipment; the parachute leg-bag must either be destroyed or or buried and on no account must it fall into the hands of the enemy. The wireless set and accumulator which are in your leg-bag you will bury separately and if possible, in such a place as easily be recognised so that they can be collected by a fourth party if necessary. If you wish, you may bury your revolver with the WT set; this WT set must be handed over to KEES as soon as is convenient.
When you have done this you will proceed to a safehouse indicated by KEES.
Residence. At your own choice.
Use the address in France - see Annexe VII. It is important to note that before an address is used it would be well to have it checked by us in London.
You will carry with you the sum of Hfl. 5000,-. also Ffr. 2500,-. and Bfr. 2500,-. for your own use should you require it in case of emergency. KEES will have Hfl. 25.000,-. for the organisation.
Package - Equipment - Camouflage.
a. Your personal baggage will consist of one brown paper parcel
b. You will be supplied with Hfl. 150,00 in small money for your immediate needs.
c. The remainder of your personal money is camouflaged as follows: Hfl. 4850,- Ffrs.2500,- and Bfrs. 2500,- in a money belt.
d. KEES will also have the same sum of money for his use.
e. Your code (One-Time-pad) and reserve poem will be camouflaged as per Annexe VI.
f. In KEES' suitcase with WT equipment there is a silent .32 with 50 rounds. He will hand this over to you as soon as possible.
Cover Story. See Annexe V.
Clothing. You will receive these items in accordance with your requirements.
Equipment. You have been interviewed as to your requirements for the field and will receive these, plus your parachute equipment, at the station of departure. See Annexe VI.
Documents. You have been issued with a Dutch Identity Card.
Return to this country. You have been interviewed by an officer with regard to routes and have been given all the necessary information. See Annexe VII.
a. In the field.
You will use the various methods which you have been taught for communications between yourself, the WT operator and other members of the organisation - postboxes, cut0outs, etc. You may also arrange various danger signals.
The WT operator will be in possession of his own code and equipment for the maintenance of two-way contact with LONDON. You will do all the encoding and decoding of your messages to you; this must be strictly adhered to for the security of all concerned. The WT operator will only send messages to us concerning technical matters relating to his mission and/or the acknowledgement of messages which we shall broadcast by WT.
c. Messages by WT.
In order to maintain the security of the WT operator, it is essential that your messages should be kept as short as possible and limited to important information connected with your mission. Records of messages exchanged should not be kept.
d. Innocent letters.
Code. You will use the convention which you have been taught. See Annexe VIII.
Address. You will send your Innocent Letters to an address as per Annexe VII.
Signatures. You will sign your Innocent Letters WILLEM and we shall sign DORA.
e. BBC Messages.
On the first, second and third days and on the two following Sundays, we shall broadcast as per Annexe IX. This will serve to prove your bona fifes if necessary.
f. Emergency Address.
It is important that we should remain in contact with you, and if possible you should give us an address before you leave for the field. If you are unable to do this you should let us have an address at the first possible moment by WT. For password and reply see Annexe VII.
Should you and KEES lose each other on landing, you should meet every day in order to regain contact. See Annexe IV.
If he have reason to suppose that you have been arrested and that the Germans are working the transmitter, we shall ask you an 'innocent' question. If you are safe you will give us the correct answer, but if we do not receive the correct answer we shall presume that you are in enemy hands.
6. FINANCIAL ARRANGEMENTS.
Your rank on leaving this country will be Sgt. and your salary will be credited to your account with the Dutch Government.
LONDON, 26th May 1944.
War Office (Room 900)
No: 2188. 22nd March 1944.
Please return for DR/LC
On our visit to Colonel Cordeaux the other day I mentioned to you that one of our ex-agents, who was taken over by your service, had been misbehaving himself in West Dulwich where our agents hostel is situated.
The attached report concerns this matter and was made out by the Dutch officer attached to this hostel.
I am not certain whether the man concerned is still in your employ but, if so, I feel certain that I can leave it to you to see that he is severely reprimanded and steps are taken to see that he does not in the future frequent the neighbourhood of our hostel.
I shall be glad to hear from you if he is not still in your employ as T shall then have to trace him and have him warned in some other way.
Cmdr. P.L. Johns, R.N.
This is Koops the V.D. onchchant who we inclined sending back to the Knitel … Cooler.
PLJ London 27th March 1944.
This will acknowledge receipt of your letter No. 2188 of the 22nd March.
Your ex-agent who was taken over by us is still in our service at the present time. We are, however, thoroughly dissatisfied with him, and have only been waiting for the problem of the personnel on the Dutch SOE side to be settled before taking up with them the question of this man's disposal.
I will see that this matter is put on the agenda for one of our next meetings with our Dutch opposite numbers, and we will then decide whether he should go to the Cooler, or whether the Dutch can take him back and ensure that he does not endanger either your or our services by his indiscretions.
OWN NAME: GERRIT JAN KUENEN.
NAME WHEN IN TRAINING: G.J. KOOPS.
NAME IN THE FIELD: G.J. BOERENDAMS.
CODE NAME: WILLEM
NAME OF OPERATION: FOOTBALL.
33K1 Sheet no. KOOPS
02-04-1943 - STS-3
01-05-1943 - STS-51
07-05-1943 - Averard Hotel
10-05-1943 - St. Agnes.
16-05-1943 - Group B
06-06-1943 - Scheme.
11-06-1943 - Flat.
14-06-1943 - STS-17.
19-06-1943 - Averard Hotel.
29-06-1943 - St. Agnes.
06-07-1943 - Averard Hotel.
19-07-1943 - STS-5
28-08-1943 - London.
01-09-1043 - STS-5
29-09-1943 - London.
03-10-1943 - STS-40
14-10-1943 - STS-5.
29-10-1943 - Green Park Hotel.
02-11-1943 - Leave.
07-11-1943 - Green Park Hotel
17-11-1943 - STS-61.
21-11-1943 - Sea
23-11-1943 - London.
25-11-1943 - Dulwich.
03-01-1944 - STS-5.
29-01-1944 - London.
02-02-1944 - STS-50.
15-02-1944 - Wendover Hospital.
04-03-1944 - STS-50
06-03-1944 - London
07-03-1944 - Hospital.
08-03-1944 - STS-50.
05-04-1944 - London
06-04-1944 - St. Agnes.
10-04-1944 - Dulwich.
12-04-1944 - STS-50
21-04-1944 - Averard Hotel.
28-04-1944 - Flat
30-04-1944 - STS-51
04-05-1944 - Flat.
15-05-1944 - Hayes
24-05-1944 - Flat.
30-05-1944 - Flat.
31-05-1944 - In the field.
With reference to the letter from the Dutch M.A.
Lieut. Gerrit Jan Kuenen of the Royal Netherlands Army was a member of a party proceeding to Holland on 1st June 1944.
At 01:30 hours on 1st June 1944, the aircraft in which he was travelling crashed and burned itself out just outside the airfield at Gilze-Rijen, near the water tower at Gilze. Five members of the crew were killed. Their bodies could not be identified due to burns. The sixth member was seriously wounded and died during transport to the hospital at 's Hertogenbosch. The five bodies were buried in the Roman Catholic Cemetery at Gilze-Rijen in 2nd June 1944. No record can be found of where the sixth member was buried.
Curzon Street House,
MAYFAIR 9400 Extn. 789.
8th October 1946.
Op 31 mei 1944, ’s avonds om 23.34 uur, steeg vanaf vliegveld Tempsford in Engeland een Lockheed Hudson III (registratienummer V9155, call sign MA-Q) van 161 Squadron op met aan boord twee Nederlandse geheim agenten. In de buurt van vliegveld Gilze werd het toestel door Duitse Flak geraakt en het toestel stortte om 01.20 uur neer bij de Verhovenseweg in Gilze-Rijen. De vierkoppige bemanning en de twee agenten overleefden deze crash niet.
Piloot F/Lt. Warren Macaulay Hale (24) (RCAF), navigator F/O John Gall (20) (RNzAF), onderscheiden met het Distinguished Flying Cross, en radiotelegrafist F/O Arthur George Maskall (32), drager van de Distinguished Flying Medal, liggen begraven op het Canadese oorlogskerkhof in Bergen op Zoom, respectievelijk in graf 11 F 1, 10 F 11 en 7 E 12. Boordschutter F/O Michael Henry Hughes ligt op het oorlogskerkhof te Uden, graf 5 C 5 en de beide agenten, Lt. 2e klas G.J. Kuenen en Lt. 2e klas C.M. Dekkers, hebben hun laatste rustplaats gevonden respectievelijk in Beverwijk en Roosendaal.
In de nacht van 1 juni 1944, om 01.30 uur, stortte aan de Warande in Gilze een Engelse Hudson brandend neer. Afweergeschut van het vliegveld had de bommenwerper geraakt. Het (spionage)toestel met een geheime bestemming had ook twee Nederlanders aan boord. Alle zes inzittenden kwamen om het leven.
Waar kwam het toestel vandaan en wat was de bestemming? In de late avond van woensdag 31 mei 1944 brachten de Engelsen op vliegbasis Tempsford, een tweemotorige Lockheed Hudson MkIII van het geheimzinnige no. 161 squadron in gereedheid. De bedoeling was een nachtelijke dropping uit te voeren op een veld bij Heeze in Noord-Brabant, aangeduid met de codenaam Tulip. Aan boord van de Hudson bevonden zich twee Nederlanders, C.M. Dekkers en G.J .H. Kuenen. Ze moesten daar met hun parachutes landen om vervolgens contact te maken met het Nederlands verzet. Ze droegen burgerkleding en hadden een aantal postduiven bij zich.
Na de start bleef het toestel laag vliegen om de vijandelijke radar te ontwijken. De piloot W. Hale en zijn navigator J. Gall stuurden hun toestel rond half twee ’s nachts uit noordelijke richting dwars over vliegveld Gilze-Rijen. Ongetwijfeld als gevolg van een navigatiefout. Meteen barstte licht afweergeschut los. Maar twee seconden lang. Want toen sloeg het vliegtuig al met een felle lichtgloed te pletter in de korenvelden van de Warande, op nog geen honderd meter afstand van de 37 mm Flak-batterij (luchtdoelgeschut) die daar stond opgesteld. Alle bovengenoemde inzittenden en radiotelegrafist G. Maskall waren op slag dood. De boordschutter H. Hughes werd zwaar gewond naar het Kriegslazaret in ’s Hertogenbosch vervoerd en overleed daar kort na aankomst. Hij werd in Uden begraven.
Het toestel bleef een half uur lang branden. Veel munitie en lichtkogels ontploften en een zwarte rookwolk dreef langzaam naar het zuidwesten.
De volgende morgen kwamen veel nieuwsgierigen naar het wrak kijken. De lichamen van de vijf omgekomen bemanningsleden werden met paard en wagen naar het distributiekantoor in Gilze gebracht voor identificatie. Op vrijdagmorgen werden ze, na een sobere kerkdienst, in stilte begraven op het kerkhof in Gilze. Volgens de geldende Duitse bepalingen mocht aan deze dienst geen ruchtbaarheid gegeven worden. Op 21 september 1945 werden de stoffelijke overschotten van de beide Nederlandse agenten naar hun vroegere woonplaatsen gebracht, respectievelijk Roosendaal en Beverwijk. Tragisch is, dat deze dappere Nederlanders door een noodlottige navigatiefout niet eens aan hun eigenlijke taak konden beginnen. Terwijl ze alle ontberingen hadden doorstaan die bij hun ontsnapping naar Engeland en de daaropvolgende zware opleiding hoorden.
Op 1 september 1944, net na middernacht om 00.15 uur, haalde een Flakbatterij bij het vliegveld met een voltreffer een overvliegende geallieerde bommenwerper neer. De Short Stirling IV (registratienummer LK131, call sign NF-T) van 138 Squadron stortte neer op het vliegveld. Het was de avond daarvoor opgestegen van vliegveld Tempsford voor een geheime operatie van SD/SOE (Special Duties Service / Special Operations Service).
Met uitzondering van de boordschutter Sgt. C. Bowker, die krijgsgevangen werd genomen, kwam de hele bemanning om bij de crash. Dat waren piloot F/Lt. Alfred Jerry Wallace (RCAF), boordwerktuigkundige Sgt. Roger Francis Geoffrey Bailey (21), navigator F/O Paul Edwin McNamara (24) (RCAF), de bommenrichters F/O C.Bruce Thompson (23) (RCAF) en Sgt. George Charles Hanson (21), radiotelegrafist Sgt. Royston William Bullen (21) en boordschutter Sgt. William Allan Baxter (19). Zij liggen allemaal begraven op het RK kerkhof van Gilze, graven 9-15. Bailey, Hanson en Bullen liggen in een gezamenlijk graf.